Tea Technology and Value Addition Degree Programme ( TEA)

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    Investigation of the Feasibility of Leaving Selected Weeds Species and Soft Herbs in Tea New Clearing as A Live Ground Cover
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Rajapaksha, S.D.
    With imposition of restriction for the use of herbicides on weed management in tea cultivation in view of increment of health awareness among tea consumer in the world, Cultural weed management strategies which are eco-friendly, are to be more focused. Ground coverage by using selected weeds and soft herbs is an eco-friendly practice to control weeds. Hence, field experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of leaving some weeds species and soft herbs as a live ground cover in a tea new clearing at Ury estate of the Balangoda Plantation PLC, Passara during March to May 2021. Combination of Ageratum conyzoides and Bidens pilosa and soft herbs, combination of A conyzoides, B. pilosa, Borreria spp and soft herbs, combination of A. conyzoides, B.pilosa, and Commelina benghalensis and soft herbs, combination of A. conyzoides, B. pilosa, Borreria spp, C.benghalensis and soft herbs were used as treatments and leaving all weeds was used as the 'control'. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCOB) with four replicates. Weed count of removed weeds and weed dry weight were measured. Slash weeding was done at 6 week and fresh and dry weight were measured. Abundance of selected weeds and soft herb was measured once a month. Pattern of growth of selective weeds was measured weekly. The tea plant growth was also measured. The lowest weed count removed was recorded in combination of Commellina benghalensis and Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Borreria spp and soft herbs and it was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of control. At 8 WAT, the lowest weed dry weight was recorded in combination of A. conyzoides ti and B. pilosa, Borreria spp and soft herbs, combination of A. conyzoides, B. pilosa and .0 benghalensis and soft herbs and combination of C. benghalensis and B.pilosa, A. conyzoides, Borreria spp and soft herbs and they were comparable and also significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of other treatments. The lowest weed dry weight was recorded in combination of A. conyzoides, .B. pilosa and C. benghalensis and it was significantly (p<0.05) lower than all the other treatments. The abundance of selective weeds were increased in T1, T2, and T3 at 8 WAT. The lowest soft herb count was recorded in the control. There was no any significant improvement in tea growth between any of treatments. Thus selected weeds can be left in the field as a ground cover. Keywords: Selective weeding, Soft herbs, Tea, Weed abundance, Weed density
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    Factors Affecting Land Productivity of Proprietary Tea Estates in Badulla District
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Aththanayake, A.M.M.B.
    The tea industry of Sri Lanka has made a significant contribution on the country's socio-economic status since its history. The sustainability of the tea industry in Sri Lanka is at a critical juncture since it faces many challenges like the rising cost of production, declining productivity, shortage of labor and climate changes. The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the land productivity of proprietary tea estates in the Badulla district and to propose strategies to optimize the land productivity for its long-term sustainability. Proprietary Tea Estates are considered as middle-level tea estates that may have a range of tea land extent between 10 to 50 acres (4 to 20 ha). The total extent of proprietary holdings under category of 4 to 20 ha in extent, is 14710 ha of land which is represented 6.6% of the total extent of Sri Lanka. A conceptual framework and research methodology were developed according to the information gathered from focus group discussions held with key experts attached to public institutions and few proprietary holdings in the Badulla District. A cross sectional survey using a pretested structured questionnaire together with focus group discussions were held for the collection of primary data. The stratified purposive sampling method was performed to select 33 proprietary tea estates in four tea inspector's ranges in the Badulla District. Secondary data were gathered. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze they socio-economic factors of the estates. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of independent variables on land productivity. 87.0% of the variance of land productivity was explained by the independent variables; Age of cultivation, Soil characteristics, Land use pattern, Experience, Access to formal extension services and training, Access to inputs and finance, Knowledge on estate, owners on recommended practices, Adoption to recommended practices (P = 0.000, n = 33). The findings of this study concluded that although there are proprietary tea holders who have experience with a sound knowledge on agricultural practices, the major constraints for improving productivity of the tea estates in Badulla district are inadequate opportunities to access for formal extension services in order to get technical, input and financial assistance on required time. Thus, this study would be useful for relevant authorities to implement strategies to optimize the land productivity of proprietary tea estates in the Badulla District. Key words: Tea Industry, Proprietary Tea Estates, Land Productivity, Regression Analysis
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    Evaluation of Changes in Theaflavin, Thearubigins, Caffeine and Alcohol Content During Tea Wine Fermentation
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Arunodi, R.H.C.S.
    Tea made from tender shoots of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is renowned for its refreshing and health promoting properties. A process for manufacturing wine using tea extract was developed by the Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka. As a diversified product, tea wine will broaden market for tea. Parties interested to commercialize this product are eager to know the chemical changes undergo during tea wine fermentation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in theaflavin, thearubigins, caffeine and alcohol contents during tea wine fermentation. Tea Infusion of 2°Brix was obtained by brewing black tea (Broken Orange Pekoe grade) with boiling water and it was enriched with sugar to form a 22 °Brix must. This prepared must was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glass canisters fixed with fermentation traps for a period of six weeks. Chemical composition of fermenting wine was determined in weekly interval. Theaflavins, and thearubigins contents were determined by Roberts and Smith, (1963) method whereas caffeine and alcohol contents were determined by ISO 14502, (2005) and hydro meter methods respectively. This experiment was conducted in triplicate. Initial theaflavin (16.06±3.5 µg), thearubigins (809.23 +39.11 lig) and caffeine (93.58+0.54 mg) contents per 100 mL of 22°Brix must decreased to 15.56 ±0.60 µg , 547.23 +12.92 [tg and 86.33+1.20 mg per 100 mL respectively at the end of the fermentation period. Alcohol content of the final product was 11.78% (volume by volume). Theaflavins and thearubigins are black tea polyphenols which contribute to much of physicochemical, organoleptic and therapeutic properties of tea. Further, caffeine is known as a central nervous system stimulant. Therefore, tea wine with its appreciable quantities of theaflavins, thearubigins and caffeine will be a better alternative to other types wines Keywords: Tea wine; fermentation; theaflavins; thearubigins; caffeine; alcohol
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    Study on Factors Affecting Adoption of Control Measures for the Covid 19 Pandemic in Tea Plantation Sector in Badulla District
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Tennakoon, H.T.R.N.
    Sri Lankan tea plantation sector is currently experiencing COVID-19 threats considerably. This will certainly create adverse outcomes in the health, social and economic settings in short, medium and longer terms in the tea plantation sector. To prevent any possible transmission of COVID-19 infections, stakeholders in the tea plantations are advised to adopt the guidelines at their workplaces. This study focuses on the factors affecting the adoption of control measures for the COVID-19 Pandemic in tea plantation sector in Badulla District. The study was conducted by selecting 20 tea estates using stratified sampling technique from Regional Plantation Companies in Badulla district. A Cross-sectional survey was conducted by administrating a semi-structured questionnaire together with focus group discussions to collect primary data from 72 individuals from management staff, operational staff and workers of the selected estates. Correlation and Multiple regression models were applied to measure the degree of variation and relationship among the tested parameters using STATA 16 software. Among the operational staff and workers in tea estates, the most prominent control measures were wearing face masks and keeping social distance during working time. Checking body temperature before entering to duty was hard to implement for workers engaged in the field, and wearing gloves was made complications in the field and factory premises. Findings of this study confirm that the individual's complacency on probability of getting affected, severity of the negative outcomes of the disease, confidence on the social institutions and the information received were positively correlated with the degree of adoption for the control measures. It was also found that socio economic factors; gender, income, education, type of employer and the nature of work can affect on the degree of adoption to the control measures. Some constrains related to the working place such as inadequate of facilities, lack of time and impracticability of the control measures were identified. Findings of this study would be useful for relevant authorities to review the factors affecting on the adoption of control measures introduced against Covid 19 in the plantation sector and develop most effective strategic plans for controlling such pandemic situations in future.
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    Development of Antioxidant Enriched Fruit Jam Using Soursop (Annona Muricata), Winter Melon (Benincasa Hispida) and Green Tea
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Gunathilaka, N.D.D.M.
    There is a great potential for developing value added products of both soursop and winter melon owing to their numerous nutritional and therapeutic effects. The objective of this study was to develop an antioxidant enriched jam with green tea, soursop and winter melon. Fruit jam was prepared without adding pectin, by mixing 2:1 ratio of soursop: winter melon, citric acid (0.1 %), sugar and green tea extract. Green tea extract was used to give a natural color for the product. The first and the second sensory evaluations were done in order to identify the best sugar and green tea percentages for the final product respectively. Sensory data were analyzed by nonparametric Friedman test. Following the sensory analysis, jam with 35 % sugar and 24.37 % (TSS) green tea extract was selected as the best. Proximate composition of the final product was determined using AOAC standards. Physiochemical properties including pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and viscosity were determined. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and DPPH assay respectively. Final jam contained 31.79 ± 0.47 % moisture, 2.26 ± 0.12 % ash, 0.97 ± 0.05 % fiber, 9.26±0.02 % fat, 1.08 ± 0.27 % protein and 42.66 ±. 0.24 % carbohydrate. Total energy content of jam was recorded as 308.20±2.08 kcal per 100 g. Physiochemical analyses showed that it had a total soluble solid contents of 68.33 ± 0.28°Brix, pH of 4.98±0.03, titratable Acidity of 4.68 ± 0.13 % and viscosity of 56.67 ± 0.58 mpa-s. Moreover, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity was 15.79 ± 0.07 mg GAE g-1 and 83.91 1.1g m1-1 respectively. The total plate counts were less than the standard maximum permissible limits. Even though no artificial preservative was added to the developed fruit jam, it could be successfully stored under refrigerated conditions. In conclusion, antioxidant enriched jam with green tea, soursop and winter melon will be a unique product within the market due to its superior organoleptic properties and nutritional value. Keywords: antioxidant, green tea, jam, physiochemical properties, soursop, winter melon
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    Comparison of Plants Biodiversity Between Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) & Tea Lands (Camellia Sinensis) in Watawala Plantations Plc
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Weerasekara, S.W.N.K.
    There was an obligatory requirement to conduct a comparative research study about the difference in biodiversity of the plant species of oil palm and tea lands in the low country wet zone. It has been suggested that deforestation for oil palm cultivation is the main threat to biodiversity. Oil palm trees may have subjected to reduce the biodiversity & abundance of most native plant varieties. This research was done to identify the difference in plant biodiversity between the oil palm field and the tea field. This research was conducted between the oil palm field and the tea field which were existing at same mature stage at Carbeal Division, and Stockland Division, Homadola Estate, Watawala Plantations PLC. Existing individual plant species were identified into different growth levels such as overstory, understory, and midstory. After that, identified plant species were collected and counted by arranging 10 spots of 4 square meters (2 m x 2 m) in oil palm and five spots of 2.25 square meters (1 V2 m x 1 'A m) in tea land separately. Plant biodiversity assessment under two crop environments was done at two various locations, and the comparison was well made. The relevant calculations to confirm the comparative difference of the diversity of plant species of two studied fields were done using diversity indicators such as Shannon diversity index, species evenness, and species abundance. There was no significant difference in plant family's availability on both oil palm and tea fields. Oil palm fields in Carbeal and Stockland division showed higher Shannon (0.13, 0.14) index values compared to tea (0.11, 0.12). Species evenness also was higher in oil palm (0.09) compared to tea field (0.07, 0.08). Species abundance also was higher in oil palm (1.70, 2.24) compared to tea field (1.44, 1.82). Between two crops environments in two divisions, 100 plant species and 24 plant families were identified. According to the overall results, it could be suggested that the diversity of the oil palm field is higher than the tea field. Keywords: Abundance; Biodiversity; Plantation; Plant species
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    Impacts of Rainfall Shocks on Tea Production: Evidence from Plantations in Uva Region
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Kommala, D.P.J.
    Tea is a major perennial plantation crop in Sri Lanka and it contributes significantly to the national economy. Tea plants are generally grown in rainfed systems and rainfall pattern and distribution are key factors which affect the variability of tea production. In recent years, there has been an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. According to IPCC report 2014, the global climate has changed over the past century and projected to continue to change throughout the twenty-first century. It was reported that the extreme rainfall events will increase as a result of climate change. This study estimates the impact of rainfall shocks on tea production of Uva region based on monthly panel data from 12 different tea estates in Uva region over a 19-year period (2000-2018) employing the fixed-effect model. The deviation of the monthly average rainfall from the long term mean in the respective period was used to define positive and negative rainfall shocks. The diagnostic checks were performed in order to check the model validity and reliability of the model results. Tea production was regressed along with weather and non-weather variables as predictors. A statistically significant relationship between rainfall shocks and tea production was seen in the Uva region. Results revealed that both positive and negative rainfall shocks negatively affect tea production. The impact of negative rainfall shocks was higher than that of positive rainfall shocks on tea production. The findings suggest tea growers to take appropriate adaptation options to minimize the impact of both extreme rainfall events and dry days. Keywords: Climate change; FGLS regression ; Panel data; Rainfall shocks; Tea production
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    Evaluation of the Degree of Severity of Low-Country Live-Wood Termite (Glyptotermes Dilatatus) in Watawala Plantations Plc, Homadola.
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Nawarathna, P.G.T.N.
    Low country live-wood termite is a common and serious pest in the low country tea growing regions of Sri Lanka. The termite which starts its damage by entering through pruning cut ends and end up with damaging branches of tea followed by a total bush debilitation as a result of poor supply of nutrients. There was no proper controlling method for live-wood termites in the low country regions. Hence, a study was conducted to determine the severity of damage of Glyptotermes dilatatus on commonly growing tea cultivars in Watawala Plantations PLC, Homadola which is located in Ruhuna tea growing region. TRI 2025, TRI 2026, TRI 2027, and TRI 2043 cultivars found in the estate in five different pruning cycles were selected. Average Number of Galleries per bush (AGB), Average Number of infected branches per bush (AIB) and Average gallery length of each bush (AGL) were assessed under five pruning cycles for each cultivar. The severity of low-country live-wood termite damage was varied from higher to lower in TRI 2043, TRI 2027, TRI 2026 and TRI 2025, respectively. The results revealed that the termite infestation is more severe .during 4th pruning cycle of each cultivar. Keywords: Glyptotermes dilatatus (Low country Live wood termite), Pruning cycles, Tea cultivar, Termite galleries
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    Impact of Brand Awarness on Consumer Purchase Intention with Special Reference to Sri Lankan Tea Brands
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Priyadarshana, K.M.D.A.
    Tea is the most widely consumed, most popular, and lower-cost beverage in the world next only to water. Sri Lanka is one of the top tea-producing countries in the world. Apart from the export market, the local market is also critical to sustain the tea industry. At present, a number of tea brands are available in the local market creating huge competition among them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of brand awareness on the consumer purchase intention of local consumers. Referring to the literature, the brand equity model that explains the relationship of brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand association, and perceived quality with the purchase intention was selected as the conceptual framework of this study, and a structured questionnaire was developed accordingly. In this study, the primary data were collected from 200 consumers in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka selected via non-probability convenience sampling. Data were analyzed using descriptive and regression analysis. The regression results showed that brand awareness and perceived quality have a positive significant relationship with purchase intention whereas brand loyalty and brand association do not. According to the results, the study stresses the importance of creating brand awareness, thus the tea traders should use appropriate marketing communication tools to raise brand awareness. Further, the perceived quality of tea was revealed to be significant so that the tea traders take this into account in developing their products. Keywords: Brand Awareness; Brand Association; Brand Loyalty; Local Tea Market; Purchase Intention; Perceived Quality
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    The Competitiveness of Sri Lankan Tea: A Policy Analysis Matrix (Pam) Approach
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Vithunan, T.
    Tea production in Sri Lanka seems to be distorted in recent decades due to government intervention through different taxes and subsidies. In addition, Sri Lankan tea industry is facing enormous challenges such as low productivity, low replanting rate, high cost of production, and shortage of labor. Moreover, Kenyan and Chinese teas are becoming rapidly popular in the world market, while Sri Lankan tea is losing its market share by 1.2% during the pandemic situation. The study aims at undertaking a detailed analysis of policy support for tea production in Sri Lanka for the period of 2006-2019 using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) Approach. The study is based on the secondary data obtained from the Sri Lanka Tea Board, Department of Census & Statistics, Trade map Web, Central Bank of Sri Lanka and Ministry of Plantation. The Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC), Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC), and Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) are estimated using PAM approach. Study results indicate that the values of NPC, EPC, and DRC are less than one for the period of 2006-2019. Hence, study suggests that Sri Lankan tea industry is not protected through the policy interventions while the available resources are efficiently and effectively utilized and there is a vast scope for Sri Lankan tea in terms of export to the countries. Additionally, DRC values indicate that the use of domestic factors are socially profitable in Sri Lanka despite increase cost of production over the years. However, tea production and export in the country will be negatively affected in the coming years due to recent government policy changes, such as the import banning of chemical fertilizer and other agro chemicals, as well as increased Cess tax. Therefore, the Sri Lankan government needs to consider about increasing input subsidies and other agricultural subsidies, which could affect competitiveneSs in tea industry in the country. Furthermore, lowering export Cess tax and establishing trade agreements with other nations will help to raise tea's export share in the global market.
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    Evaluation of Changes in Polyphenol, Amino Acid and Catechins Content During Tea Wine Fermentation
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Nisansala, H.M.S.
    Tea Wine is an alcoholic beverage prepared by fermenting sugar enriched tea infusion with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).The Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka developed this process with the intension of introducing diversified product of tea. Information on the changes of important tea constituents during tea wine fermentation will be useful for commercialization of this product. However, there is hardly any recently reported information on the changes in chemical constituent during tea wine fermentation. Polyphenols, catechins and amino acid mainly contribute to the characteristic organoleptic and therapeutic properties of tea. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate changes in polyphenol, catechins and amino acid contents during tea wine fermentation. Filtered black tea infusion with 2% soluble solids (2 °Brix) was obtained and its Brix value was adjusted to 22 by adding sugar. Then this sugar enriched tea infusion was fermented with yeast in glass canisters fitted with fermentation trap in triplicate for six weeks. Changes in catechins, polyphenol and amino acid were investigated in weekly interval during the fermentation period. Total polyphenol contents of the samples were determined by Foilin Ciocalteu colorimetric method and catechins contents were determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method whereas the total amino acid contents were determined by the Ninhydrin colorimetric method. Total polyphenol, total catechin and total amino acid contents of the initial sugar enriched tea infusion (in mg/100m1) were 425.21+16.00,30.67+0.24 and 4.46+1.11 respectively whereas contents of the these constituents in tea wine at the end of the six weeks of fermentation (in mg/100m1) were 307.06+7.77,28.86+0.74 and 3.89+0.06 respectively. Final product contained appreciable quantities of tea constituent known for therapeutic properties. Further, Tea wine contained significantly higher amount of total catechins (30.67 mg/100 mL) as compared to commercially available red wines (2.7 — 9.6 mg/100mL). Therefore, this rich chemical composition will be advantageous in marketing tea wine. Further, to make this investigation complete, studies on change in other important constituents such as caffeine, theaflavins and thearubins during tea wine fermentation will be required. Keywords: Amino Acid; Catechins; Fermentation; Polyphenols; Tea Wine
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    Investigation on Underlying Causes for Sudden Tea Bush Death and the Feasibility of Applying Decanter Cake of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) as an Organic Fertilizer on Tea Fields at Watawala Plantations Plc
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Nayanananda, K.G.D.T.
    A series of experiments was carried out at the Nakiyadeniya estate, Galle of the Watawala Plantations PLC. in 2021 to investigate the underline cause for tea bush death with addition of Decanter cake of Oil Palm to tea filed, the suitable decomposition level of DC to use as an organic fertilizer and the optimum rate of decomposed DC to be appled to soil. Three treatments such as, 2kg and 4 kg of DC decomposed over four weeks,and the control were tested with tea. Results showed that the plots applied with 4kg of DC decomposed over four weeks enhanced the total nitrogen, available phosphorus and total organic carbon content in soil. They were 1.76+ 0.05%, 321.51+ 12.39 (mg/kg) and 5.23+ 0.5% respectively. In the other experiment where DC was heaped for four, six and eight weeks to decompose showed that most effective period of decomposition is eight weeks recording 4.2% total nitrogen, 1640.58 (mg/kg) of available phosphorus and 51.04% of total organic carbon with the lowest electric conductivity 214.3(6/cm-2) and. Furthermore, tea bush death was occurred as a result of direct application of fresh DC without allowing to decompose,to the base of tea plant thereby a high electrical conductivity was occured. An overall analysis is showed decanter cake decomposed four 8 weeks is found to be more favourable to apply DC as an organic fertizer on tea fields. Key words: Decanter cake, total nitrogen content, organic carbon , available phosphorous , electric conductivity, Tea bush death.
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    Development of A Non-Dairy, Probiotic Three-in-One Instant Tea Premix
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Hansamali, A.S.
    Instant tea products are becoming popular due to on the go eating and drinking habits of people. Current instant tea market clearly lacks a non-dairy instant tea product to fulfill the requirements of vegetarians. Being health conscious and willingness to boost immunity, people tend to use probiotic products. Hence present study was focused to develop a non-dairy, probiotic three-in-one instant tea premix using soy milk powder, Bacillus coagulans as probiotic, hot-water-soluble instant black tea powder, sugar, Fructooligosaccharides as sweetener and non-dairy creamer. Five recipes were prepared by using above mentioned ingredients with three replicates. Samples were packed as 27 g each sachet. Sensory properties of these samples were evaluated using 5 points Hedonic scale by ten trained panelists. Anti-oxidant activity and polyphenol and caffeine contents and viable plate count of the selected samples were analyzed to determine its functional properties. Shelf life stability of the selected product was studied under accelerated conditions at 37°C for 6 weeks. Moisture content, rancidity and microbiological analysis were carried out to determine the shelf life of the selected product. Sensory data were analyzed by Friedman test and mean separation under 95% significance level. Anti¬oxidant activity, total polyphenol content and caffeine content of the selected product were 740.9+15.32 Ascorbic acid equivalent per 100 g, 897.3+40.52 Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g, and 605.97+3.23 mg per 100 g respectively. Its total viable plate count remained at around 1 x109 throughout the study period enabling it to be claimed as a probiotic which supports immunity and digestive health. In conclusion, the developed product with its significant viable plate count, anti-oxidant activity, and polyphenol and caffeine contents will be a refreshing dietary supplement for vegans. Key words: Instant tea; Bacillus coagulans; soy milk powder; polyphenol
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    Development of Plant-Based Protein Tea Premix Using Tea Cream and Pea (Pisum Sativum) and Rice (Oryza Sativa) Protein Isolates
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Fernando, W.N.K.
    Tea is well known for its refreshing and health promoting properties. Tea cream is the precipitate formed as tea cools. All the important tea constituents are concentrated in tea cream. Further, it is produced as a byproduct during cold-water-soluble instant tea manufacture. Adequate dietary intake of protein is important for growth, wellbeing and as an energy source. Generally, vegetarian diets are not wholesome in terms of quantity and quality of protein supplied. Therefore, there is a potential to deliver high quality plant-based protein in concentrated form via tea which is renowned as a healthy beverage. This study was carried out to develop a plant-based protein tea premix. Tea cream was prepared using the discarded fraction during tea manufacture which is known as 'refuse tea'. Recipes of protein tea premix were prepared by incorporating different levels of Pea (Pisum sativum) protein isolate (38%, 45%, 49%, 53% and 60%) and Rice (Oryza sativa) protein isolate (60%, 53%, 49%, 45% and 38%) with a constant level of tea cream (2%). Sensory properties; colour, aroma, taste, mouth feel, appearance and overall acceptability of the samples were evaluated using 9 points Hedonic scale by 30 untrained panelists and the best recipe was selected for further analysis. Protein, moisture, ash, crude fat and crude fiber contents of the product were determined using official AOAC methods. Total phenolic content was determined as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) by Folin Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Total antioxidant capacity was determined by assessing the DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The selected protein tea premix contained 82.58 + 0.40% protein 8.00 ± 0.34% moisture and 3.06 ± 0.08% ash whereas crude fiber and crude fat were not detected in the sample. Total polyphenol content of the product was 16.64 ± 0.57 mg GAE g-1 and its inhibition concentration (IC50) was found to be 137.10 + 0.55 lig m1-1. Therefore, the developed plant-based protein tea premix with its high protein content and appreciable levels of polyphenol and antioxidant activities would be a healthier and an appealing protein source. Key words: Tea cream; Protein isolate; Pea; Rice; Proximate composition.
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    Estimation of Water Footprint of Black Tea Production: A Case Study in Madulsima Plantations PLC, Badulla, Sri Lanka
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Dayarathna, B.D.S.
    Water is an economic commodity as the availability of clean fresh water in short supply. Most water resource experts now agree that inadequate water management, rather water shortage, is the primary cause of water conflicts. Meanwhile the virtual water concept has become popular in estimating the amount of water used in the production of goods or services, linking framework to find potential solutions and contributing to improved water resource management. Water footprint is a tool to calculate the amount of water that is consumed and polluted in all stages of a production process. Generally, three types of water are considered in water footprint calculations; green water, blue water and grey water. The present study was conducted to estimate the water footprint of black tea production at two tea estates of M4dulsima Plantations PLC. Green water footprint of tea was calculated using CROPWAT 8.0 model. Blue and grey water footprint of black tea were calculated following the guidelines in the Water Footprint Assessment Manual. The results revealed that, the virtual water content of black tea production of Madulsima Plantations PLC was 4270.69 M3 / ton / year. Further the green water footprint for evapotranspiration of tea was 1090.7 mm / year. The total green water content in black tea of the studied two estates was 3227.68 m3 / ton and it is three times less than that of the average value of Sri Lanka while much less than those of China, India, and Kenya as available in the scientific literature. Further the blue water footprint of black tea production of these estates was 1.23 m3 / ton and it is negligible when compared with China and India. The grey water footprint of tea cultivation practices in these estates was 1041.78 m3 / ton and it is also less than those average values of the Sri Lanka and China. However,the grey water footprint of the studied two estates can be potentially reduced by incorporating organic cultivation concept in the long run. Keywords: Black tea production process, CROPWAT 8.0 model, Cultivation practices, Virtual water content, Water Footprint Assessment Manual
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    Study on the Growth of Commelina Benghalensis Weed Infested in Tea Lands, its Feasibility to Use As A Live Ground Cover and as A Cattle Feed
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Amarasingha, B.M.H.P.
    Commelina benghalensis is one of the problematic weeds commonly found in tea lands. It is very difficult to manage manually due to fragmentation of vegetative parts and it is chemically managed only by phenoxy herbicides, which are currently banned. However it has favourable characteristics on tea crop such as the capability of solubilizing soil phosphorus in roots of Commelina through VAM mechanism. An investigation was carried out to study the feasibility of growing Commelina under mature tea as a live ground cover. The field experiment consisting of four treatments, i.e. tea alone (weed free), tea infested with C. benghalensis slashed at 4 and 8 weeks interval and no weeding for 12 weeks, was conducted at a Wewessa estate, Badulla. Growth performances of C. benghalensis and tea yield were measured. A plot study for growth performances of Commelina was also conducted at the Uva Wellassa University, Badulla. Further, feasibilities to use the weed as a cattle feed being a kind of biological control strategy were also investigated. Three cattle of same age were fed with a similar weight of Commelina weed and common grass Megathyrsus maximus for three consecutive days. Proximate analysis was undertaken for nutrient levels of Commelina to study the suitability of the weed as a cattle feed. There was no any significant difference in tea yield between treatments. When compare to the six nodal stem cutting and three nodal stem cutting there are significant difference in leaf growth and primary branch growth. The weight of Commelina removed with slash weeding was more or less same in all treatments. Ail cattle showed much preferences for Commelina benghalensis weed than common grasses. Proximate analysis for Commelina weed showed 88.93% moisture, fiber 16.52%, fiber, 17.32% fat, 12.82% ash and 15.34% protein. Compare to the Megathyrsus maximus there are significantly high moisture, fat and ash contents in Commelina benghalensis. Commelina benghalensis weed can be allowed to grow as a creeper for shorter period and can be used as a cattle feed. Keywords: Biological control, Cattle feed, Commelina benghalensis, Live ground cover, Proximate analysis
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    Development Of A Low-Calorie Green Tea Based Ready-To-Drink Beverage Using Brahmi (Bacopa Monnieri), Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera ), Stevia (Stevia Rebaudiana) And Ceylon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicurn)
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Abayathilaka, W.S.
    There is increasing demand for low-calorie functional beverages as consumers are becoming health conscious. Conventional ready-to-drink products consist of higher sugar content causing health issues. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is known for various health benefits. Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) possess anti-stress, energy, and memory-boosting-like functional properties. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) is having a pungent flavor and antimicrobial activity. Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a natural non-calorific sweetener. Therefore, this research was conducted to develop a green tea-based sugar-free natural functional beverage using these herbal extracts. Green tea, Ashwagandha, Brahmi, and Stevia infusions were obtained by brewing in hot water. Cinnamon water extract was obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Several recipes were prepared with different combinations of above extracts and sensory properties were evaluated using nine point Hedonic scale by thirty untrained panelists. Results were statistically evaluated by Friedman test. Physiochemical properties of the selected recipe were evaluated and its keeping qualities were evaluated for one month against Sodium benzoate (0.1% w/v) as the positive control and sample without cinnamon as negative control. The selected recipe contained 0.2% of Green tea and Ashwagandha, 0.05% of Brahmi and Cinnamon and 0.14% of Stevia on the basis of soluble solid (g/100 ml). Changes in pH, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids of the cinnamon incorporated sample were very much similar to that of positive control. At the end of the storage period, its total plate count (6.6 x 102 CFU/ml) and yeast and mold count (5.2 x 10' CFU/ml) were less than the negative control (1.74 x103, 3.9 x 102 CFU/ml respectively) and higher than the positive control (2.25 x 102,0 CFU/ml respectively). Total polyphenol content, DPPH scavenging activity (IC5o), pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids content of the beverage were 59.68 ± 0.05 mg GAE/100m1, 126.23 + 0.53 µg/m1, 6.36 ± 0.01, 0.488 + 0.21%, 0.7 ± 0.021 respectively. With appreciable physicochemical, organoleptic, and keeping qualities, the developed green tea-based Ready-to-Drink beverage will be a healthy alternative. Analysis of chemical compounds which contribute to the functional properties will be useful to confirm the health benefits of the product. Keywords: Ashwagandha; Brahmi; Cinnamon; Green tea; Ready -to-drink; Stevia
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    Factors Affecting on Consumer's Tea Buying Behaviour in Kurunegala District
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2015) Jayakody, J.M.N.
    Tea production in Sri Lanka is of high importance to the country's economy and the world market. The country is the world's fourth — largest producer of tea and the industry is one of the main sources of foreign exchange, a significant source of income for laborers, which generates approximately $ 700 million annually. Different kinds of marketing strategies have supported the launch of a tea brand in Kurunegala District, this study was designed to reveal the tea buying behavior of consumers in the Kurunegala District. The survey research method was used in the study where a semi- structured questionnaire was developed considering the marketing mix factors and the factors described in the theory of planned behavior. With the pre- tested questionnaire, 250 randomly selected customers were interviewed. The survey data were analyzed using regression analysis. The regression results revealed that the factors such as, demographic factors ( age, gender), environmental factors (Monthly earning, residence area) and marketing mix (Product, price, place and promotion) showed a significant relationship with the tea buying behavior of the consumers of Kurunegala District whereas the factors such as, planned behavioral factors (perceived behavior, attitude of the consumers and subjective norms) did not show a significant relationship with the tea buying behavior. Hence, the results of this study will be useful in designing the tea brand to be promoted in the Kurunegala District. Keywords: Tea, Marketing mix, Theory of Planned Behavior, Kurunegala District
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    Identification of Different Types of Materials Used in Packaging Tea for Retailing in Sri Lanka and Estimation of Waste Generation Due to Tea Packaging
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2015) Siriwardhana, S.L.H.N.
    Packaging is an important component of the food technology, assuring the safe and delivery of fresh and processed products from the point of production to the end user. On a global scale food packaging ensures food security and safety and tends to increase food trade. Tea industry has become vital component in Sri Lanka economy and become major exporting commodity. The success and profitability food manufacturer is closely associated with the packaging system. This study was undertaken to identify different types of packaging materials used in retail packaging of tea in Sri Lanka, to assess their suitability and to quantify waste generation from different forms of packaging. Tea packed during nearby months in different materials and in different forms by major tea packers and retail packers were collected from supermarkets and retail sellers in Badulla town. Packing materials were identified using FTIR technique and thicknesses of materials were measured using a caliper. Weights of empty packet and its content were measured separately and waste generations due to packaging (g of package/kg ofe tea) were calculated. Three unopened samples from each types of package were stored under room temperature. Moisture contents of these samples were analyzed opening one sample from each type monthly. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) was the most commonly used material for retail packing of tea. LDPE with various thicknesses (0.04 - 0.14 mm) and in different forms (plain, laminated & metalized) were found to be used. Moisture content of tea packed in plain LDPE exceeded the permissible level (8%). Estimated waste generation (g/kg of tea) from 50 g packs (62.4±17.3) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of other packs; 100 g (35.8+6.5), 200 g (25.3±12.6), 250 g (24.7±10.5) and 400 g (24.8+5.1). It can be concluded that plain LDPE will not protect tea adequately from moisture gaining during storage and higher amount of waste is generated from 50 g tea packs. Keywords: Packaging, Moisture Gain, Waste Generation
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    Socio-Economic Impacts of Tea Price Fluctuation: A Study on Tea Small Holder Farmers
    (Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2015) Premasiri, H.P.H.D.
    Ceylon tea is a giant competitor for other tea producyng countries in world tea market due to its good quality. Anyhow, tea market price is not stable and always fluctuating due to several market, economic and environmental reasons. Therefore this study was carried out with randomly selected 200 of tea small holder farmers in Matara district with the aim of investigating the socio-economic impact of tea price fluctuation on tea small holder farmers who are involving with tea cultivation as their main housed hold income generating source and the alternative strategies which they have used to mitigate those socio-economic impacts. Tea price change has significantly affected to farmers 'life style those who cultivate tea as their main income source. So the price change has significantly affected on their assets/income and their consumption pattern. But there is no any significant effect from tea price change to the debtness of the farmers. In order to mitigate the impacts of tea price change most of farmers used to crop diversification as an alternative income source and majority of them have selected pepper,cinnomon and areca nut to having an additional income while growing other crops like betel,banana,coconut etc. in small extent. Although they have moved for an alternative income earning strategies those alternatives could not be able to significantly contribute to the house hold income to solve their problems. Key words: Socio-economic impacts,Tea smallholder, price fluctuation, alternatives, income