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Welcome to the Uva Wellassa University Institutional Repository, a gateway to the intellectual treasures of our academic community. We are delighted to extend our reach and connect you with a world of knowledge, research, and scholarly work through this platform. Our Institutional Repository serves as a reservoir of Uva Wellassa University's intellectual property, housing a diverse range of academic and research-related materials. With a core mission of promoting open access, we take immense pride in creating this platform for the benefit of the global knowledge society.

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Investigation of the Feasibility of Leaving Selected Weeds Species and Soft Herbs in Tea New Clearing as A Live Ground Cover
(Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Rajapaksha, S.D.
With imposition of restriction for the use of herbicides on weed management in tea cultivation in view of increment of health awareness among tea consumer in the world, Cultural weed management strategies which are eco-friendly, are to be more focused. Ground coverage by using selected weeds and soft herbs is an eco-friendly practice to control weeds. Hence, field experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of leaving some weeds species and soft herbs as a live ground cover in a tea new clearing at Ury estate of the Balangoda Plantation PLC, Passara during March to May 2021. Combination of Ageratum conyzoides and Bidens pilosa and soft herbs, combination of A conyzoides, B. pilosa, Borreria spp and soft herbs, combination of A. conyzoides, B.pilosa, and Commelina benghalensis and soft herbs, combination of A. conyzoides, B. pilosa, Borreria spp, C.benghalensis and soft herbs were used as treatments and leaving all weeds was used as the 'control'. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCOB) with four replicates. Weed count of removed weeds and weed dry weight were measured. Slash weeding was done at 6 week and fresh and dry weight were measured. Abundance of selected weeds and soft herb was measured once a month. Pattern of growth of selective weeds was measured weekly. The tea plant growth was also measured. The lowest weed count removed was recorded in combination of Commellina benghalensis and Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Borreria spp and soft herbs and it was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of control. At 8 WAT, the lowest weed dry weight was recorded in combination of A. conyzoides ti and B. pilosa, Borreria spp and soft herbs, combination of A. conyzoides, B. pilosa and .0 benghalensis and soft herbs and combination of C. benghalensis and B.pilosa, A. conyzoides, Borreria spp and soft herbs and they were comparable and also significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of other treatments. The lowest weed dry weight was recorded in combination of A. conyzoides, .B. pilosa and C. benghalensis and it was significantly (p<0.05) lower than all the other treatments. The abundance of selective weeds were increased in T1, T2, and T3 at 8 WAT. The lowest soft herb count was recorded in the control. There was no any significant improvement in tea growth between any of treatments. Thus selected weeds can be left in the field as a ground cover. Keywords: Selective weeding, Soft herbs, Tea, Weed abundance, Weed density
Factors Affecting Land Productivity of Proprietary Tea Estates in Badulla District
(Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Aththanayake, A.M.M.B.
The tea industry of Sri Lanka has made a significant contribution on the country's socio-economic status since its history. The sustainability of the tea industry in Sri Lanka is at a critical juncture since it faces many challenges like the rising cost of production, declining productivity, shortage of labor and climate changes. The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect the land productivity of proprietary tea estates in the Badulla district and to propose strategies to optimize the land productivity for its long-term sustainability. Proprietary Tea Estates are considered as middle-level tea estates that may have a range of tea land extent between 10 to 50 acres (4 to 20 ha). The total extent of proprietary holdings under category of 4 to 20 ha in extent, is 14710 ha of land which is represented 6.6% of the total extent of Sri Lanka. A conceptual framework and research methodology were developed according to the information gathered from focus group discussions held with key experts attached to public institutions and few proprietary holdings in the Badulla District. A cross sectional survey using a pretested structured questionnaire together with focus group discussions were held for the collection of primary data. The stratified purposive sampling method was performed to select 33 proprietary tea estates in four tea inspector's ranges in the Badulla District. Secondary data were gathered. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze they socio-economic factors of the estates. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of independent variables on land productivity. 87.0% of the variance of land productivity was explained by the independent variables; Age of cultivation, Soil characteristics, Land use pattern, Experience, Access to formal extension services and training, Access to inputs and finance, Knowledge on estate, owners on recommended practices, Adoption to recommended practices (P = 0.000, n = 33). The findings of this study concluded that although there are proprietary tea holders who have experience with a sound knowledge on agricultural practices, the major constraints for improving productivity of the tea estates in Badulla district are inadequate opportunities to access for formal extension services in order to get technical, input and financial assistance on required time. Thus, this study would be useful for relevant authorities to implement strategies to optimize the land productivity of proprietary tea estates in the Badulla District. Key words: Tea Industry, Proprietary Tea Estates, Land Productivity, Regression Analysis
Evaluation of Changes in Theaflavin, Thearubigins, Caffeine and Alcohol Content During Tea Wine Fermentation
(Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Arunodi, R.H.C.S.
Tea made from tender shoots of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is renowned for its refreshing and health promoting properties. A process for manufacturing wine using tea extract was developed by the Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka. As a diversified product, tea wine will broaden market for tea. Parties interested to commercialize this product are eager to know the chemical changes undergo during tea wine fermentation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in theaflavin, thearubigins, caffeine and alcohol contents during tea wine fermentation. Tea Infusion of 2°Brix was obtained by brewing black tea (Broken Orange Pekoe grade) with boiling water and it was enriched with sugar to form a 22 °Brix must. This prepared must was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glass canisters fixed with fermentation traps for a period of six weeks. Chemical composition of fermenting wine was determined in weekly interval. Theaflavins, and thearubigins contents were determined by Roberts and Smith, (1963) method whereas caffeine and alcohol contents were determined by ISO 14502, (2005) and hydro meter methods respectively. This experiment was conducted in triplicate. Initial theaflavin (16.06±3.5 µg), thearubigins (809.23 +39.11 lig) and caffeine (93.58+0.54 mg) contents per 100 mL of 22°Brix must decreased to 15.56 ±0.60 µg , 547.23 +12.92 [tg and 86.33+1.20 mg per 100 mL respectively at the end of the fermentation period. Alcohol content of the final product was 11.78% (volume by volume). Theaflavins and thearubigins are black tea polyphenols which contribute to much of physicochemical, organoleptic and therapeutic properties of tea. Further, caffeine is known as a central nervous system stimulant. Therefore, tea wine with its appreciable quantities of theaflavins, thearubigins and caffeine will be a better alternative to other types wines Keywords: Tea wine; fermentation; theaflavins; thearubigins; caffeine; alcohol
Study on Factors Affecting Adoption of Control Measures for the Covid 19 Pandemic in Tea Plantation Sector in Badulla District
(Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Tennakoon, H.T.R.N.
Sri Lankan tea plantation sector is currently experiencing COVID-19 threats considerably. This will certainly create adverse outcomes in the health, social and economic settings in short, medium and longer terms in the tea plantation sector. To prevent any possible transmission of COVID-19 infections, stakeholders in the tea plantations are advised to adopt the guidelines at their workplaces. This study focuses on the factors affecting the adoption of control measures for the COVID-19 Pandemic in tea plantation sector in Badulla District. The study was conducted by selecting 20 tea estates using stratified sampling technique from Regional Plantation Companies in Badulla district. A Cross-sectional survey was conducted by administrating a semi-structured questionnaire together with focus group discussions to collect primary data from 72 individuals from management staff, operational staff and workers of the selected estates. Correlation and Multiple regression models were applied to measure the degree of variation and relationship among the tested parameters using STATA 16 software. Among the operational staff and workers in tea estates, the most prominent control measures were wearing face masks and keeping social distance during working time. Checking body temperature before entering to duty was hard to implement for workers engaged in the field, and wearing gloves was made complications in the field and factory premises. Findings of this study confirm that the individual's complacency on probability of getting affected, severity of the negative outcomes of the disease, confidence on the social institutions and the information received were positively correlated with the degree of adoption for the control measures. It was also found that socio economic factors; gender, income, education, type of employer and the nature of work can affect on the degree of adoption to the control measures. Some constrains related to the working place such as inadequate of facilities, lack of time and impracticability of the control measures were identified. Findings of this study would be useful for relevant authorities to review the factors affecting on the adoption of control measures introduced against Covid 19 in the plantation sector and develop most effective strategic plans for controlling such pandemic situations in future.
Development of Antioxidant Enriched Fruit Jam Using Soursop (Annona Muricata), Winter Melon (Benincasa Hispida) and Green Tea
(Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka, 2016) Gunathilaka, N.D.D.M.
There is a great potential for developing value added products of both soursop and winter melon owing to their numerous nutritional and therapeutic effects. The objective of this study was to develop an antioxidant enriched jam with green tea, soursop and winter melon. Fruit jam was prepared without adding pectin, by mixing 2:1 ratio of soursop: winter melon, citric acid (0.1 %), sugar and green tea extract. Green tea extract was used to give a natural color for the product. The first and the second sensory evaluations were done in order to identify the best sugar and green tea percentages for the final product respectively. Sensory data were analyzed by nonparametric Friedman test. Following the sensory analysis, jam with 35 % sugar and 24.37 % (TSS) green tea extract was selected as the best. Proximate composition of the final product was determined using AOAC standards. Physiochemical properties including pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and viscosity were determined. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and DPPH assay respectively. Final jam contained 31.79 ± 0.47 % moisture, 2.26 ± 0.12 % ash, 0.97 ± 0.05 % fiber, 9.26±0.02 % fat, 1.08 ± 0.27 % protein and 42.66 ±. 0.24 % carbohydrate. Total energy content of jam was recorded as 308.20±2.08 kcal per 100 g. Physiochemical analyses showed that it had a total soluble solid contents of 68.33 ± 0.28°Brix, pH of 4.98±0.03, titratable Acidity of 4.68 ± 0.13 % and viscosity of 56.67 ± 0.58 mpa-s. Moreover, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity was 15.79 ± 0.07 mg GAE g-1 and 83.91 1.1g m1-1 respectively. The total plate counts were less than the standard maximum permissible limits. Even though no artificial preservative was added to the developed fruit jam, it could be successfully stored under refrigerated conditions. In conclusion, antioxidant enriched jam with green tea, soursop and winter melon will be a unique product within the market due to its superior organoleptic properties and nutritional value. Keywords: antioxidant, green tea, jam, physiochemical properties, soursop, winter melon